Syllabus and Study materials for Geography Paper-I (भूगोल भाग -1)

Physical Geography

1. Geomorphology:

  • Factors controlling landform development;
  • endogenetic and exogenetic forces;
  • Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust;
  • Fundamentals of geomagnetism;
  • Physical conditions of the earth’s interior(पृथ्वी के अंतरतम की भौतिक दशा );
  • Geosynclines;
  • Continental drift;
  • Isostasy;
  • Plate tectonics;
  • Recent views on mountain building;
  • Vulcanicity;
  • Earthquakes and Tsunamis;
  • Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ;
  • Denudation chronology;
  • Channel morphology;
  • Erosion surfaces;
  • Slope development ;
  • Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.

2. Climatology:

  • Temperature and pressure belts of the world;
  • Heat budget of the earth(पृथ्वी का ऊष्मा बजट );
  • Atmospheric circulation(वायुमंडलीय परिसंचरण );
  • atmospheric stability and instability.
  • Planetary winds(भूमंडलीय पवन ).
  •  local winds (स्थानीय पवन) ;
  • Monsoons(मानसून)
  •  jet streams (जेट स्ट्रीम )
  • Air masses (वायुराशि )
  •  Fronto genesis (वाताग्रजनन)
  • Temperate (शीतोष्ण चक्रवात )
  • tropical cyclones (चक्रवात );
  • Types and distribution of precipitation(वर्षण के प्रकार एवं वितरण );
  • Weather and Climate;
  • Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates;
  • Hydrological cycle;
  • Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes,
  • Applied climatology and Urban climate.

3. Oceanography:

  • Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans;
  • Temperature and salinity of the oceans;
  • Heat and salt budgets,
  • Ocean deposits;
  • Waves, currents and tides;
  • Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources;
  • Coral reefs, coral bleaching;
  • sea level changes;
  • law of the sea
  • marine pollution.

4. Biogeography:

  • Genesis of soils;
  • Classification and distribution of soils;
  • Soil profile;
  • Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation;
  • Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals;
  • Problems of deforestation and conservation measures;
  • Social forestry;
  • agro-forestry;
  • Wild life;
  • Major gene pool centres.

5. Environmental Geography:

  • Principle of ecology;
  • Human ecological adaptations;
  • Influence of man on ecology and environment;
  • Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances;
  • Ecosystem their management and conservation;
  • Environmental degradation, management and conservation;
  • Biodiversity and sustainable development;
  • Environmental policy;
  • Environmental hazards and remedial measures;
  • Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography

1. Perspectives in Human Geography:

  • Areal differentiation;
  • regional synthesis;
  • Dichotomy and dualism;
  • Environmentalism;
  • Quantitative revolution and locational analysis;
  • radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches;
  • Languages,
  • religions and secularization;
  • Cultural regions of the world;
  • Human development index.

2. Economic Geography:

  • World economic development: measurement and problems;
  • World resources and their distribution;
  • Energy crisis;
  • the limits to growth;
  • World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions;
  • agricultural inputs and productivity;
  • Food and nutrition problems;
  • Food security(खाद्य सुरक्षा );
  • famine: causes, effects and remedies;
  • World industries:locational patterns and problems;
  • patterns of world trade.

3. Population and Settlement Geography:

  • Growth and distribution of world population;
  • demographic attributes;
  • Causes and consequences of migration;
  • concepts of over-under-and optimum population;
  • Population theories, world population problems and policies,
  • Social well-being and quality of life;
  • Population as social capital.
  • Types and patterns of rural settlements;
  • Environmental issues in rural settlements;
  • Hierarchy of urban settlements;
  • Urban morphology:
  • Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule;
  • Functional classification of towns;
  • Sphere of urban influence;
  • Rural – urban fringe;
  • Satellite towns;
  • Problems and remedies of urbanization;
  • Sustainable development of cities.

4. Regional Planning:

  • Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation;
  • Growth centres and growth poles;
  • Regional imbalances; regional development strategies;
  • environmental issues in regional planning;
  • Planning for sustainable development.

5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography:

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