II. 1.1 Neolithic culture in India

It is characterized by domestication of plants and animals, sedentary life style, pottery and polishing of stone tools. Around 10,000 B.C.

 Neolithic cultures in India can be classified into the following geographical regions:

  1. Northwestern region – Afghanistan & Pakistan- Mehargarh;

mixed economy – farming  and domestication of animals , hunting; earliest evidence of wheat and barley cultivation; sheep, cattle and goat domesticated;

Tools- stone axes, grinding stones, mulers, microliths

2. Kashmir Valley – Burzahom, Gufkral; pit-dwellings;

wild grains of wheat, barley, common pea and lentil

Tools- stone, bone and antler tool; long celts, stone points, bone tools like harpoons, arrowheads and harvesters;

3. Belan Valley – Chopani-Mando, Koldihawa;

cattle, sheep and goat; domestication of rice;

Tools-chisels, celts and adzes; cord-impressed pottery

4. Ganga Valley – Chiand, Senuwar;

rice, barley, lentil, field pea, millets; mud floors, pottery;

Tools-celts, microliths, bone tools; semi-precious stone beads; sedentary life

5. North Eastern India – Cachar, Garo and Naga hills;

cultivation of yams and trao, cord-impressed pottery;  stone and wooden memorials raised for the dead

Tools- shouldered celts, small axes;

6. South India – Nagarjunakonda, Sangakallu, Hallur;

reddish brown pottery;  cultivation of Ragi, wheat, horsegram, green gram; cattle, goat, sheep, buffalo, ass, fowl, swine; ash mounds

Tools- stone axes, wedges, microliths and blade tools of quartz crystals

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